1. Effective drilling
Well . . . mostly the part that comes after the drilling, where I want the learners to practice the words/phrases in pairs. The idea is that they listen to each other and give feedback, but I’ve never really set this up properly (including giving them language for feedback)–and I need to do more modelling of feedback on pronunciation during the choral drilling as well.
2. Effective group work and pair work
There seems to be a vast amount of literature out there on theories of cooperative learning (CL), including how it pertains to language development in ELT. At the end of the day, I need to be clearer in my own mind and my own planning about why I’m asking students to work in pairs or groups–and obviously students themselves would be curious about the why as well. Also, effective collaboration requires scaffolding and training, especially for learners whose academic backgrounds may not have featured a lot of group or pair work. Can’t just be throwing students together because it’s “best practice”: there needs to be a reason for it.
3. Autonomous learning strategies
Again, there’s bound to be a wealth of information on helping students develop autonomous learning skills, particularly in EAP. Learning portfolios, reflective journals, vocabulary banks: all great tools that I’d like to know how to use more effectively. Finding a free digital platform for hosting a learning portfolio would be helpful too.
I saw a great presentation on this recently at PDWest which included a long list of differentiation techniques, and I can’t wait for the slides to be published (the presenter ran out of time and had to rush through many of them). But one of the key takeaways was that student variance is not just a question of language level: other aspects of a student’s background play into it. Really keen to explore this further.
I should print this out or share this at work:
Competency Framework for Teachers of English for Academic Purposes (link via tweet)
I tried out this activity this afternoon as a way of introducing students to a vocabulary bank they will need to maintain.
The students were divided into groups, with each group given a vocabulary item from the bank. They had to enter the item into Google News Search and note down at least 3 different collocations/uses. They then presented their findings to the class.
It was good to see students highlighting that certain collocations are more common than others: something they could only really have picked up by looking at numerous authentic examples.
This idea for a closer was shared with me by Marlon Schoep of Curtin University. He used it every day on a bridging course, and what I love about it is that it reminds those of our learners in tough, high-stakes courses that they’re part of a community and that they’re, you know, human.
And it’s very simple. At the end of the class, have all of the students stand in a circle. One student (a different student each time) tells a story about themselves.
A variation of this idea that my colleague suggested as a warmer is to have a different student each day give a 5-minute presentation (about themselves, about whatever topic is being studied that week, about whatever they have on their minds).
This idea was suggested to me by Simon Cosgriff of Curtin University.
Take the word proximity. Have the learner do a Google search of, say, “proximity CNN.” They then look at the first six articles and note down as many collocations with proximity as possible.
A screenshot of the first three results alone yields close proximity, proximity to and proximity of X to:
- Google and the Google logo are registered trademarks of Google Inc., used with permission.
The learner could then try and formulate their own sentences using the collocations.
Something I’ve been encouraged by observers to work on in my lessons is cutting down on teacher talking time (TTT), particularly the tendency for TTT to increase as the lesson progresses. As Sam Shepherd points out in a great post on TTT, we should strive to minimise TTT not for its own sake but in order to create as many opportunities as possible for our students to speak. Teacher talk, then, is something we ought to use sparingly, skilfully and strategically–to support rather than stifle learning.
Shepherd identifies three main areas where teacher talk gets out of hand–giving explanations, giving instructions, and filling silences in speaking tasks; for each case he suggests why excessive teacher talk is occurring and how we can fix it. (Read his post for the details.) I would add that, were we to think deeply about what we’re doing as teachers throughout a normal lesson, we’d be able to identify many more opportunities where we could yield the floor to students. Here are just a few examples:
- Error correction: rather than correcting on-the-spot during a speaking activity, collect errors (and samples of good usage) that you hear and whiteboard them, then have students work in pairs or groups to correct them.
- Setting up a task: rather than giving step-by-step instructions, demonstrate what to do with the first exercise (and get the class to help you). This works especially well with controlled-practice activities, but you can try using it with just about any task.
- Student-centered feedback on content. This is something I most commonly use with conversation-line or speaking-circle activities: in the last rotation I’ll have the students share with their new partner the information they learned about their previous two speaking partners. That way I only need to deal with errors.
- Grammar presentations: have students in groups work out the positive, negative and question forms of a model sentence, and then present this to the class.
- Wait time: after posing a question to the class or an individual student, give them time to process the question and compose an answer. Let them fill the awkward silences!
Where else would you suggest we can turn TTT into STT in our lessons?
One of the aspects of my current role that I enjoy the most is that I get to run regular 15-minute workshops for my colleagues, chiefly on topics related to e-learning. While I am growing more confident the more I run these mini-PDs, I still have a lot of learning to do; so I was very happy to come across Martyn Clarke’s post (on OUP ELT Global) on what to consider when running a workshop. This may be summarised as follows, though I encourage you to read his post in full:
- Identify the purpose of your workshop.
- Have a clear structure to guide the learning process (he suggests Input – Task – Output).
- Think about logistical matters such as timing, schedule conflicts, teaching space, materials, etc.
- Prepare a follow-up task (“homework”) to help teachers make use of what they have learned.
- Have your colleagues evaluate your workshop, and consider what you will do with their feedback.
While I do tick most of these boxes in the way I deliver workshops, Clarke’s post has helped me to think about it a bit more systematically. I realise that most of my workshops hitherto would be classified as “awareness-raising”–introducing my colleagues to a new app or a new way to use Google Slides or Blackboard for blended learning, for instance–and I could probably explore other models (such as skills-development). As for process, I often include a hands-on task if I’m demo-ing an app using a set of iPads; otherwise I adopt the tried-and-true method of gathering participants’ ideas on a new concept (e.g. how they might apply what I’m teaching in their own lessons) before adding my own.
I also like to give participants a “takeaway”, such as a one or two-page set of instructions on how to use a particular app or tool. But I certainly need to be more pro-active in encouraging workshop participants to incorporate what they’ve learned into their own teaching. I imagine there’s a lot of great PD in language centres across the world that disappears down the memory hole as busy teachers, initially very enthusiastic about a new idea or approach they’ve encountered, struggle to find an immediate place for it in their programmes, and soon forget it.